How Computer Chips Are Made From Silicon – Consumer Top

how computer chips are made

Computer chips are tiny electronic devices that control almost everything in our lives. They’re used for computers, cell phones, cars, appliances, and even toys. Today we are telling the process of making computer chips.

How Computer Chips Are Made

how computer chips are made

A computer chip is made by first creating a silicon wafer, which is then sliced into individual chips. Each chip contains millions of transistors, each transistor containing billions of atoms. These atoms are arranged in layers, with the top layer being the gate oxide, which acts like a protective shield around the transistor. The next layer is polysilicon, which is used to create the electrical connections within the chip. The third layer is the metal interconnects, which connect all the transistors together. Finally, there is the passivation layer, which protects the chip from moisture and other contaminants.

Start with Silicon Wafers

Silicon wafers are the foundation of every chip. These thin slices of pure silicon are sliced off of large blocks of silicon crystal called boules. The boule is cut into smaller sections called ingots, which are then polished down to make wafers. Wafers are then cleaned and etched before being coated with layers of metal and other materials. Finally, the wafer is diced into individual chips.


Each chip contains millions of tiny transistors, each one capable of performing a specific function. For example, some chips are used to store data while others control the speed of the processor.


A single wafer can contain anywhere from 100mm to 300mm chips, depending on the size of the wafer and a typical wafer is roughly two millimeters thick and has a diameter of 200 mm (8 inches). The thickness of the wafer determines the number of chips that can be produced from a single block of silicon. The larger the wafer, the fewer chips per wafer.


Silicon wafers are used to create integrated circuits. These tiny electronic components are found in everything from computers to cell phones to cars. In fact, the first transistor was invented in 1947 by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain while working at Bell Labs.

How to Manufacture Computer chips

There are many different ways to manufacture computer chips. Some companies use a process called photolithography, which involves etching away parts of a silicon wafer until only the desired chip remains. Other companies use a technique called chemical vapor deposition, which deposits layers of material onto a substrate such as glass or plastic. Still, other companies use a technique called electron beam lithography, which uses electrons instead of light to expose the pattern.

Additionally, We’ll Discuss How Chips Makes Them So Strong

Silicon is composed of four elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. These elements combine into different compounds, such as silica (SiO2) and silicates (SiO3). Silicon is often combined with germanium, phosphorus, arsenic, boron, or antimony to form semiconductors. Semiconductor devices use these materials to store and process data.

The most common type of silicon used today is called crystalline silicon. Crystalline silicon is formed from silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is created by heating silicon at high temperatures. When heated, SiO2 becomes a liquid known as silicic acid. Silicic acid then reacts with water to create silica gel, which is a solid material. After the silica gel has been purified, it is ground into fine powder. Finally, the powder is mixed with other chemicals to create a silicon compound.

Silicon is one of the most important elements in modern technology. In fact, it’s found in everything from computers to cell phones to solar panels. Silicon is also used to make glass, ceramics, and semiconductors.


The silicon used to make computer chips comes from sand. Sand contains silica, which is composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. When heated, the sand melts into quartz, which is then crushed into tiny pieces called flint. Flint is then purified using chemicals such as hydrofluoric acid, which removes impurities. After purification, the flint is melted again and shaped into ingots. These ingots are sliced into wafers, which are then polished until they’re shiny enough to be used in microchips.

Heated Process

The first step in making a computer chip is to grow crystals of silicon. To do this, scientists heat silicon in a furnace. As the silicon heats up, it begins to melt. Once the silicon is molten, it is poured into molds. The molds contain holes that allow the silicon to cool slowly. Because the silicon is cooled slowly, it forms long, thin rods. These rods are then cut into smaller pieces, which are then placed in furnaces where they are heated to 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit.

When the silicon reaches 1,200 degrees, it becomes liquid again and flows out of the mold. This process is called “pulling” or “wet pulling.” After being pulled from the mold, the silicon is put through a series of chemical baths to remove impurities. Then, the silicon is washed with water to remove any remaining chemicals. Finally, the silicon is dried by blowing air over it.

After drying, the silicon is ready for use as a semiconductor material. Scientists can use silicon to make transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, and other electronic components.

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